There is a long list of extraesophageal symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), some with strong evidence-based support, like asthma, cough, and hoarseness, and some linked by association only, like sore throat, sinusitis and ear pain.
Emerging data in diagnostic tests and treatment outcomes outlined in a new AGA Clinical Practice Update suggests that reflux could be causal in a subgroup of patients with extraesophageal reflux, although the degree has been overestimated.
There are no established diagnostic tests that unequivocally link any suspected extraesophageal symptom to GERD. Diagnostic tests used in evaluation of patients with extraesophageal symptoms suffer from either lack of sensitivity or specificity and have limited associated treatment outcomes. Nevertheless, testing is needed, and often in combination, to support or refute this diagnosis. Read more in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.